How many of you reading this article, are tennis players? Or are you just curious to know if the name relates to the game in reality? Well, If you’re assuming that you have a tennis elbow because you play tennis, you’re wrong. A tennis elbow can affect as many...
What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a disorder in bones. Bone is a living tissue that is in a constant state of regeneration. The body removes old bone (called bone resorption) and replaces it with new bone (bone formation). Till the late 20’s the formation will be more and then the bone resorption will slowly increase than bone formation resulting Osteoporosis issue in old ages. Yet it can occur at any age, in men as well as women, and in all ethnic groups. People over age 50 are at greatest risk of developing osteoporosis and having related fractures. After the age of 50, one in two women and one in six men will suffer an osteoporosis-related fracture at some point in their lives.
In Osteoporosis there is a decline in the strength of bone and also bone can become porous and, in most cases, there will be a loss of bone, as the person grows older. As a result, bones become weak or porous and may break from a fall or, in serious cases, from sneezing or minor bumps.
Signs and symptoms of Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis will develop slowly and, in most cases, cannot be identified or overlooked initially. In a lot of cases, it cannot be identified, until the person experiences a fracture or break after a minor incident, such a fall. In some extreme cases, a sneeze or cough also result in a break of osteoporotic bones. Breaks will often occur in hip, wrists or spinal vertebrae. Sometimes you might notice height lost by noticing your clothes are not fitting right.
If the person feels severe discomfort in any of the common locations of osteoporotic bone could indicate an unexpected and unidentified fracture. People should get a medical examination done as soon as they notice severe pain in bones.
Causes and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis
There are many factors that can raise the risk of Osteoporosis. Some of these factors can be changed, but some cannot be.
Major Risk factors that cannot be changed:
- Advancing age, menopause
- Small bone structure
- Persons who have broken hips
- Risk factors that can be changed:
- Low levels of sex hormone, mainly estrogen in women (e.g., menopause)
- Eating disorders
- Tobacco smoking or consumption
- Excessive alcohol intake
- Low Calcium or Vitamin D
- Sedentary (Inactive) Lifestyle
- Diseases that can affect bones
- Endocrine (hormone) diseases (hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing’s disease, etc.)
- inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, etc.)
- Certain medications like medicines taken for Hypothyroidism, Blood Thinners, etc.
Osteoporosis is identified by having a simple test that measures bone mineral density—sometimes called BMD. BMD —the amount of bone you have in a given area—is measured at different parts of your body. Often the measurements are at your spine and your hip, including a part of the hip called the femoral neck, at the top of the thighbone (femur). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (referred to as DXA or DEXA and pronounced “dex-uh”) is the best current test to measure BMD.
Some of the best tips to change in Lifestyle that helps in preventing Osteoporosis are
- Make sure you get enough calcium in your diet or through supplements (roughly 1,000–1,200 mg/day, but will depend on your age).
- Get enough vitamin D (400–1,000 IU/day, depending on your age and your blood level of vitamin D measured by your doctor).
- Stop smoking.
- Avoid excess alcohol intake.
- Be physically active and do weight-bearing exercises, like walking, most days each week. Aim for at least 2½ hours a week (30 minutes a day five times a week or 50 minutes a day three times a week), or as much as you can. Exercises that can improve balance, such as Tai Chi or yoga, may help prevent falls.
- Change lifestyle choices that raise your risk of osteoporosis.
- Implement strategies to help decrease your risk of falling.
Pregnancy and Osteoporosis:
Young women who have risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures need to carefully consider their medication options if they are planning a pregnancy. None of the drugs for managing osteoporosis has enough safety data available to recommend using them in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Bisphosphonates, even after you stop taking them, can stay in your body a long time. Animal studies show that bisphosphonates cross the mother’s placenta and enter the fetus. The risk of harm to the fetus in humans is not known. Thus, women who want to become pregnant later should weigh the expected benefits of bisphosphonates against the possible risks. If a woman who has taken a bisphosphonate becomes pregnant, she should have her blood calcium levels checked, because they could become low. On the other hand, most women who take bisphosphonates are post-menopausal.
About The Doctor:
Dr. Chakri’s Clinic is the Best Orthopedic clinic in Hyderabad, India. Dr. Reddy is an expert Orthopedic Surgeon in Hyderabad. He has treated thousands of patients through medicines and surgeries. The clinic is equipped with the most advanced orthopedic tools and machinery.